What is COPQ and how to calculate COPQ?
What is Quality?
Quality is customer satisfaction
Quality is fitness for use
The totality of features
and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to
satisfy given needs.
What is good Quality in manufacturing?
Less variation = Better Process
99% Good quality mean….
2 Short or Long Landing at
Airport every day.
5 incorrect surgical
operation per week
200000 wrong drug
prescription every year
Unsafe drinking water 15 min
20000 lost articles of mail
No electricity for 7 hour per
1 Wrong bank transactions per
From the above statements we can not consider this 99% good quality. You see 1 wrong transection per day could be great loss one day for bank. 1 short or long landing at airport could create huge suspension in passengers over landing system which could lead airport industry to great loss. 1 single incorrect operation in week could also close hospital due to loss of customer satisfaction.
So we quality has no bar, limit, it is without cost and infinite as much as good one can create.
What is cost of Quality?
Cost of Quality is summation of “cost of conformance” & “Cost of Non-Conformance”.
Cost of Quality (COQ) = Cost of Conformance + Cost of Non-Conformance.
Cost of Conformance is cost of providing products or services as per
the required standards. This can be termed as good amount spent (Prevention
& Appraisal costs).
Cost of Non Conformance is the failure cost associated with a process
not being operated to the requirements. This can be termed as unnecessary
amount spent ( Internal & External failure costs).
See below picture _ structure for quality cost:
Note:- Cost of Non Conformance is “Cost of Poor Quality”.
What is cost of Poor Quality?
“The Cost of
poor quality is … the expense of nonconformance – the cost of doing things
“cost of poor quality” is all those costs which are incurred in any
company for not producing the product first time right.
Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)= External Failure + Internal Failure
Why Cost of poor quality is discussed?
But ultimately everyone understand language or Ruppe, (INR Money). Less COPQ mean improved profit, which will help to improve Quality management system. Also COPQ indicate to improve some area of Quality and decide action for improvement.
The Language of Money is essential, Without quality cost
figures the communication of information to the upper managers is slow &
less effective. Quality cost measurement
and Publication does not solve quality problem: There should be establishment
of clear responsibilities, providing resources for removing cause of the
problem and identifying projects. For efficient working, structured scoreboard
must be supplemented for improvement program.
of Quality Costs is too limited. Apart from measuring quality costs for
non-conformities (i.e., defects in goods and services), focus should also be on
“hidden costs” of lost sales due to poor quality and omitted cost of
While calculating COPQ we have to consider only Internal failure cost and External failure Cost.
Internal Failure cost
work fail to reach designated quality standards , and are detected before
transfer to the customer takes place.
These costs occur when products, components and
materials fail to meet quality requirements prior to transfer of ownership to
Some example of internal failure cost:-
Scrap:- When we scrap any product, here we loss labour cost + material cost + Process cost. Now this product can not used and repaired. Scrap cost will cost of product.
Rework:- This is the cost of correcting the defective product. It will include material consumed for rework + Labour per hour cost.
Failure Analysis:- Cost incurred to determine cause of failure.
Re-inspection:- Cost of reinspection and Retesting.
Supplier Rejection Cost:- Cost due to wrong part supplied by supplier.
These the all failure cost incurred within the plant. Other internal failure cost could be process variation, inventory, Not following the standard, Non value added activities.
External Failure cost
service from a process fails to reach designated quality standards, and is not
detected until after transfer to the customer.
We can say, “All those failure costs which are incurred once
the product leaves the plant”.
External failure cost occur when product doesn’t perform satisfactorily
after transferring ownership to the customer.
Some example of external failure cost are:-
How to compute COPQ?
Simple-Just add total cost of Internal failure and External failure. See below picture for understanding.
What will be benefits of reducing COPQ?
By reducing COPQ industry can reduce rejection and rework, can improve Quality, can reduce cost, can increase customer satisfaction.
By implementing COPQ Model we can create pleasant workplace, motivate employees, Improve profits.
To calculate Cost of Quality we must have to understand “Appraisal Cost, Prevention Cost”.
What is Appraisal Cost in COPQ?
Appraisal Costs “Appraisal costs are
all those costs incurred to ensure/appraise that the processes are right as per
APPRAISAL Cost associated with
measuring, evaluating or auditing products and purchased materials to assure
quality standards and performance requirements.
Appraisal Cost Example:-
Incoming inspection and test
In-process inspection and test
Final inspection and test
Product quality audits
What is Prevention Cost in COPQ?
activities whose purpose is to reduce/eliminate the number of defects.”
is a measure of investment made prior to producing a product and is associated
with personnel engaged with design, implementing and maintaining the quality
All of us know that Prevention is better than
cure. Then how to achieve this? Who is responsible for ensuring that everyone
in the organization starts thinking in this direction?
effective way to manage the business in such a way those defects/abnormalities
do not occur at all. All those costs incurred that focus on prevention rather
3 Objective of Mistake Proofing:-
Preventive cost example:-
Process control –SPC, FMEA
Supplier up gradation
What is Hidden cost in Industries?
Hidden cost is part of COPQ. Sometime we see its not failure but we taking action for improvement after establishing complete process of manufacturing. The cost which are difficult to estimate and
occurs in both manufacturing and service industries which include:
Potential lost sales
Cost of redesign of products due to poor quality
Cost of changing process
Cost of software changes
Cost of equipment downtime
Cost of extra material purchased & Allowances for scrap &
Extra indirect cost due to defects and errors
Scrap and errors not reported
Cost of errors made in support operations eg., shipping, billing,
of poor quality within a supplier’s company
How to Calculate COPQ?
For COPQ calculation in excel we have to follow some steps:-
For COPQ calculation we collect cost from different area, see below picture for understanding.
We can also make Cost of Quality worksheet for analysis of cost/Evaluation of cost.
First we make cost calculation sheet. Then we have to calculate COPQ% of sales. Which should be as per decided target. Companies use sales as the measurement base
which makes comparison easier.
Complex highly reliable products are involved
quality costs may be as high as 20% of sales and industries which produce
simple low tolerance products, quality cost less than 2% of sales may be a
See below picture of simple COPQ calculation:-
Graph of COPQ is drawn below, see below picture:-
So what we do for COPQ, we collect sales value for a month (month for which we are calculating COPQ) and we calculate cumulative value for Poor cost (That is Rejection cost + Scrap cost + Rework cost). We will divide COPQ to sales value and multiply by 100 for %.
You can use excel sheet for COPQ calculation and graphical analysis.
Excel sheet for COPQ.
Click here for access excel sheet for COPQ. With this excel sheet you can calculate Value quality cost. Do analysis and check trend.
This excel sheet is complete solution for COPQ understanding.
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