Sunday, October 1, 2023

Difference Between ELV and RoHS

 ELV and RoHS

ELV – End of Life Vehicle. Directive 2000/53/EC

The End of Life Vehicles Directive is a Directive of the European Union addressing the end of life for automotive products. Every year, motor vehicles which have reached the end of their useful lives create between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste in the European Union. In 1997, the European Commission adopted a Proposal for a Directive to tackle this problem. The Directive on End-of Life
Vehicle 2000/53/EC is the first EU waste directive with which the EU Commission has introduced the concept of Extended producer responsibility. The directive aims at reduction of waste arising from end-of-life vehicles. The scope of the directive is limited to passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The directive covers aspects along the life cycle of a vehicle as well as aspects related to treatment operations.

RoHS (Restriction on Hazardous Substances)

RoHS is an European Union (EU) legislation that restricts certain substances in electrical and electronic equipment with the goal of reducing the environmental impact of such equipment.

It originally entered into force July 1, 2006 (2002/95/EC) and was later revised June 8, 2011 (2011/65/EU) and entered into force July 3, 2013. Countries beyond the EU (China, Korea, India, etc.), have also adopted RoHS-like legislation.

What are aims of ELV directives?

  1. preventing the use of certain heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury and hexavalent chromium,
  2. collection of vehicles at suitable treatment facilities,
  3. de-pollution of fluids and specific components,
  4. coding and/or information on parts and components
  5. ensuring information for consumers and treatment organizations
  6. achieving reuse, recycling and recovery performance targets
  7. With these targets set, the directive involves four major stakeholders, the producer, the recycling industry, the last holder and the authorities. Each has a responsibility within the realms of its unique possibility.

What are aims of RoHS?

  • Requires declaration that relevant products placed on the market do not contain above threshold level of certain substances
  • Requires CE Marking 
  • Requires Declaration of Conformance
  • Requires Technical Documentation
  • Includes exemptions with expiration dates

What substances are restricted under RoHS and ELV?

Substances restricted (Percentages indicate the max tolerated and are based on the
amount of the substance in a single homogenous material):
  1. Lead (0.1%)
  2. Mercury (0.1%
  3. Cadmium (0.01%)
  4. Hexavalent chromium (0.1%)
  5. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) (0.1%)
  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) (0.1%)
  7. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (0.1%)
  8. Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) (0.1%)
  9. Dibuytl phthalate (DBP) (0.1%)
  10. Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (0.1%)
Exemption Examples:
  • Lead as an alloying element in aluminum containing up to 0.4% lead by weight is permitted (6b).
  • Copper alloy containing up to 4% lead by weight is permitted (6c)
  • Lead in high melting temperature type solders (i.e. lead based solder alloys containing 85% by weight or more lead) (7a).

Elements of the ELV Directive


The concept of prevention is based on four pillars. Firstly, the aim is the reduction of hazardous substances in vehicles to minimize their release to the environment. Secondly, vehicles should be designed to facilitate proper dismantling and to allow components and materials to be reused, recycled and/or recovered. Thirdly, the producers (both vehicle and component) shall increase the demand for recycled material. Finally, certain materials (lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium) are forbidden except for a few applications with defined phase-out dates.

Material coding:

Materials and components, which are either classified hazardous and thus shall not be released to the environment or should be dismantled to facilitate recycling, need to be coded for easier identification by treatment facilities. Well known ISO standards are to be applied for marking purposes.

Treatment obligation:

With the advent of the ELV Directive, minimum technical requirements any treatment facility need to adhere for treatment facilities.

Collection systems:

For the consumer the primary focus of the ELV Directive is the responsibility of any given producer to take back the vehicles it has introduced on the market. The obligation does not mandate the producer to physically do it on his own, but rather allows for networks the producer can set up with various treatment companies or by joining a collective system.


Vehicle recycling under such strict legal framework requires constant and palpable communication to stakeholders.

Quota monitoring:-

To measure the actual performance of the countries, targets were defined with the ELV Directive.
The EU Member States and other countries are obliged to ensure that economic operators (i.e. authorities, treatment operators and producers) as part of their shared responsibility meet certain minimum targets

Calculation methodology:

The targets are to be calculated based on the average weight of a single vehicle per year. While recycling is primarily defined as material processing with the purpose to use the material for the same or for a similar purpose, recovery is defined as incineration to generate energy.

Common homogenous materials containing restricted substances in RoHS:

  1. Lead – Solders, termination coating, paints, pigment, PVC stabilizer
  2. Cadmium – Coatings, solders, semiconductors, contacts, PVC stabilizers, pigments
  3. Mercury – Fluorescent lamps, batteries, sensors, relays
  4. Hexavalent Chromium – Coatings to prevent corrosion (on zinc, aluminum or in paints).
  5. PBB, PBDE – Flame retardant in certain plastics
  6. DEHP, BBP, DBP, DIBP – Plasticizers in certain plastics and cables

What is difference between EU ELV and Indian ELV?

Mandatory Scope

  1. EU: Vehicles of category M1 and N1
  2. India: Vehicles of category M1, L1 and L2

Forbidden Substances for Motor Vehicles

  1. EU: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium 
  2. India: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium

Recoverability Rate for Motor Vehicles

  1. EU: Recyclability rate (85% and more), Recoverability rate (95% and more)
  2. India: Recyclability rate (80% and more), Recoverability rate (90% and more)

MDS Reporting Tool

  1. EU: IMDS
  2. India: IMDS (major OEMs’ plan)
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